provincial kingdoms

  • Disintegrated from Delhi in 1397 AD, under Zaffar Khan, who assumed the title of Sultan Muzaffar Shah.
  •   Ahmed Shah I (his grandson), built a new city Ahmedabad and also built Jama Masjid and Tin Darwaza at Ahmedabad.
  •   In the reign of Mahmud Beghra, Portuguese set up a factory a t Diu. Udayraja was h is court poet.
  •   Akbar annexed Gujarat in 1573 AD.


  •   Husan Shah was a powerful ruler of Malwa. He built Jama Masjid, Hindol Mahal and Jahaz Mahal at Mandu.
  •  Malwa became a part of Gujarat in 1531 AD and was annexed to Mughal state in 1562 AD.


  • Shamsuddin Shah became the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir in 1339 AD. 
  •  Zainulabdin (1420 AD–1470 AD) was the greatest ruler of Kashmir, also known as ‘Badshah’ and Akbar of Kashmir. He introduced the art of shawl-making in Kashmir, built Zaina Lanka and an artificial island in the Wular Lake. 
  •  Later ruled by Chak Dynasty, whose ruler submitted to Akbar in 1586 AD.


  •   The capital city of Chittor was captured by Alauddin Khilji in 1303 AD but Rajput rule was soon restored by Rana Hamir (1326 AD–1364 AD).
  •  Rana Kumbha Karan (1433 AD–1468 AD) was the greatest ruler of Mewar. He built the famous victory tower Vijay Stambh at Chittor to commemorate his victory over Mahmud Khilji of Malwa. His court was adorned by Mandan who wrote many books on architecture, Parsad Mandan and Rupa Mandan.
  •   Rana Sangram Singh (1509 AD–1528 AD) defeated Mahmud I I o f Malwa and Ibrahim Lodhi. 


  •   Disintegrated from Delhi during the reign of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq. 
  •  In 1342 AD, Iliyas Khan founded the new Iliyas Shahi Dynasty. 
  • The famous poet, Maladhar Basu, compiler of SriKrishna Vijay, was patronized by the Sultans and was given the title of ‘Gunaraja Khan’.
  •   Chaitanya and Shankaradeva belonged to this period.
  •   Sher Shah Suri occupied Bengal in 1538 AD.